Cooking techniques are a set of methods and procedures for preparing, cooking and presenting food. Good techniques also take into account economical use of food and cooking fuel resources, as well as food safety.
So, what is the cooking time for a turkey? This is a common holiday cooking question.
General Rule For Cooking A Turkey
As a guide, cook your thawed turkey 20 minutes per pound, but the actual cooking time will differ depending on whether your turkey is stuffed and the actual oven cooking temperature.
For food safety reasons: It is strongly recommended that stuffing on the side and cook the turkey unstuffed.
Plus, you can actually cook more stuffing if you have a large enough dish and sufficient ingredients, than the inside of a turkey would have the capacity to hold.
How long to cook a turkey
The times on the chart below are based on the turkey being placed a preheated ( 350o F / 175o C) oven with the roasting pan on the center rack.
Use an oven thermometer to ensure your oven is maintaining the proper temperature, once preheated.
When roasting a turkey, always cook your turkey to a safe temperature (165o F / 74o C), use a meat thermometer, and check the thermometer often.
Turkey cooking times reference chart
Unstuffed Roasting Time
Stuffed Roasting Time
10 to 18 pounds
3 to 3-1/2 hours
3-3/4 to 4-1/2 hours
18 to 22 pounds
3-1/2 to 4 hours
4-1/2 to 5 hours
22 to 24 pounds
4 to 4-1/2 hours
5 to 5-1/2 hours
24 to 29 pounds
4-1/2 to 5 hours
5-1/2 to 6-1/4 hours
Turkey Roasting Tips
Start with a completely thawed turkey; for food safety reasons, plan ahead and use the refrigerator to thaw the turkey.
Always Preheat your oven
Basting is optional if you want a browner and more even browning of the skin.
Cook the turkey uncovered until the skin is lightly golden and then cover loosely with a foil tent.
remove the foil tent for the last 45 minutes of baking to finish browning the skin.
The only safe test for turkey doneness is the temperature of the meat, and the turkey is cooked when the thigh meat has reached an internal temperature of (165o F / 74o C). To get an accurate internal reading, be sure that your meat thermometer is not touching the bone.
If you stuffed the turkey, the stuffing must reach the temperature of (165o F / 74o C), which can result in a drier and slightly overcooked turkey
When the turkey is cooked, remove the turkey from the oven and allow the turkey to rest for 20-30 minutes before carving. Resting the turkey allows the juices to redistribute throughout the turkey and makes for easier carving.
When you freeze cookies
and dough for your holiday baking, you can enjoy stress-free schedules. These
come in handy during holiday periods when you need a lot of time for activities
such as buy, travel, and celebrate. Our easy-to-follow steps on how to freeze
cookies and cookie dough and bake later help you freeze and bake when you are
in a time crunch.
1. What type of
cookies to freeze?
You can freeze almost
every type of cookies cutouts, slice-bake, biscotti, and drop cookies. Avoid
freezing cookies such as meringues that are decorated, filled, or have a
delicate structure. You should also avoid freezing cookies that are coated with
chocolate. A chocolate-coated cookie tends to form a boom, which is a white-colored
layer on the surface when you freeze it.
2. How to freeze
After you bake your
cookies, allow them to cool completely in the room temperature. Place these
cooled cookies in a single line on a baking sheet lined with parchment or wax
paper. You can stack multiple layers of cookies provided they are separated by
parchment or wax paper. Store the lined up cookies in a freezer friendly zip
lock storage bag. Before you close the bag, squeeze out any extra air in the
bag and place it in the freezer. You can also label these bags with a name and
date when you have many different types of cookies to freeze.
Whenever you like to
taste the cookie, grab the cookies from the freezer and place it outside the
freezer for a while to get rid of the coldness in the cookies. Allow it to
attain the room temperature before you eat. You can also heat the frozen cookies
in a microwave in a 10-second interval. You need to avoid heating decorated
3. How to freeze a
It is preferable to
freeze a cookie dough instead of freezing the baked cookies. Frozen cookie
dough allows you to make fresh homemade soft cookies with a nice smell, any
time you need it. You can place the baked cookies or roll or cut the cookie
dough in paper sheets lined with wax and place them in the freezer. You need to
freeze them for an hour or so until it becomes firm hard. You can then transfer
the frozen unbaked cookies or cookie dough in an airtight container or storage
bag and freeze it. You can label this cookie dough or cookies when you have
many doughs that look similar. You can store cookies or cookie dough in the freezer
for up to 6 months, provided they are wrapped and stored properly.
However, if you need to
complete the entire task of baking cookies in one shot, you need to bake the
cookies and freeze them.
6 mistakes to avoid
when freezing cookie dough.
1. Freezing a wrong
You can freeze all types
of cookie dough except thin and delicate cookies such as lace, Florentines,
pizzelle. The doughs for these cookies have watery batters and do not freeze
well, whether they are baked or unbaked. It is preferable to make fresh batters
for these types of cookies.
2. Not freezing
cookie dough in the right method.
Depending upon the kind
of cookie dough, you need to follow a different method to freeze it.
Drop cookie doughs
should be rolled into balls on a baking sheet and frozen until it is firm and
transfer it to an airtight container or a freezer bag.
Slice and bake doughs
should be rolled into logs, tightly wrapped in waxed sheets, and placed in the
Cut out doughs can be
shaped into discs, layered one upon the other, and separated by wax sheets. You
can place these stacked discs in a plastic wrap and transfer to an airtight
3. Freezing cookies
rolled in granulated or powdered sugar.
Freezing cookies that
are rolled in sugar or granules make the sugar to clump. It forms an unpleasant
coating on the cookies and an eyesore. To prevent this, you can roll your
cookies on powdered sugar right before you pick them to eat.
4. Not baking for
Though you can bake
frozen balls of drop cookies, slice and bake and cutout cookie doughs need to
be placed outside the room temperature for a short while before you bake.
Colder doughs need more time to bake, and you need to allow it to bake for few
more minutes than the suggested baking time. Warming the dough helps you to get
better-baked cookies when you use cold doughs.
5. Not freezing
You need to freeze your
baked cookies or cookie dough until it is firm using a baking sheet wax before
you transfer them to a freezer bag or an airtight container. Otherwise, it
might end up in a block of stuck cookies or cookie dough when you grab them
6. Thawing baked
cookies in the same frozen containers.
When you thaw the baked
cookies in the same container, you froze them, the lingering condensation from
the frozen containers deposits on cookies, and make them soggy. You need to
take out frozen baked cookies containers to separate plates lined with paper towels
and place them at room temperature.
These simple tips enable
you to create great homemade cookies and give you a lot of time for other
holiday activities. You can grab out your cookies any time you need a variety
of cookies within minutes.
Though you can cook asparagus in different ways but roasting them is considered as the most admired way to cook them. If you do not know how to oven-roasted asparagus, then you should read this write-up till the end as it will also introduce you to the mistakes commonly committed by people while cooking this vegetable.
Some Basic Things
Before proceeding towards the recipe for roasting asparagus you should know about some basic things like the ends of asparagus spears are normally impossible to cook as they are too hard to cook. So you should trim them before starting to cook them. Before oven roasting asparagus, you should season them generously with pepper and salt. Asparagus should be cooked in an oven in a single layer as they will not char if they have crowded your pan.
Recipe of Oven
Ingredients required to oven-roasted asparagus may include:
Trimmed stalks of asparagus (2 pounds)
Extra virgin olive oil (3 tbsp)
Directions for Oven
Before starting to roast
asparagus in the oven, you should preheat the oven up to 400 degrees. Now put a
large baking sheet on a large baking sheet in the oven and place generously
seasoned asparagus with olive oil on that sheet. Roast the asparagus sticks up
to 25 minutes or until they tender.
Some of the Common
Mistakes to Be Avoided
While roasting asparagus,
people usually make some common mistakes, which can be avoided while roasting
them a bit carefully. Some of these mistakes may include:
Use Of Too Big Or Too Small Asparagus Stalks
While roasting asparagus
stalks, you should take them of the right size as too thin stalks can be
overcooked easily, whereas thick stalks will be more fibrous and woodier. So,
they should be medium in size when you are oven roasting them.
According to cooking
experts, peeling asparagus before cooking is not necessary. Moreover, it will
take much time to peel them. Instead of peeling the asparagus stalks, you
should cut off their bottom part as the rest of them is edible.
Cut off Too Much
Some people bend the
asparagus stalks to remove their woody portion, which is not the right method
to remove their inedible part. According to experts, it is a time-consuming
method. You should check them by pressing them with your fingers. The stalk will
break up automatically, or you can slice it from that point to remove its woody
Most cooking experts
blanch asparagus, regardless of the method they use for cooking them. It makes
easier to start their cooking process. When you are roasting asparagus without
blanching it them its outer surface will be charred, whereas from inside, it
will remain raw. You should blanch asparagus in boiling highly salted water for
1-3 minutes, according to the size of its pieces. But you should not blanch it
for a longer time as it will boil them, which may not be suitable for roasting
By avoiding these
mistakes, you can easily oven roast perfect asparagus.
For beautifully browned, crisp roasted asparagus, arrange the
spears in a single layer with plenty of space on the baking sheet. When the baking
sheet is overcrowded, the vegetables will steam rather than roast.
When grilling Asparagus, skewer to prevent the Asparagus from
falling through the grill grates and flipping the Asparagus easier.
Steaming Asparagus In The Microwave:
Wrap the asparagus in several damp paper towels before cooking. The
paper towels will provide just enough moisture to make the Asparagus tender.
Have an ice bath ready to rapidly cool the Asparagus as soon as
it comes off the stove. Rapidly cooling the Asparagus stops the cooking process
immediately and ensures vegetables aren’t overcooked.
Eating Asparagus Raw:
If you love the bright, green taste of raw asparagus, ribbons are probably the most playful way to enjoy it. Start with medium-to-large-sized stalks and, using a vegetable peeler to make ribbons. It’s best to hold the asparagus from the bottom and cut down and away from you.
One of the frequently
asked questions is, “Can homemade pies be frozen? Well, the appropriate answer
is Yes! Pies made at home can freeze wonderfully. There are several reasons to
freeze your pies; for instance, you could be preparing pies in advance for a
family dinner, an upcoming holiday, or looking to store some to eat later on.
Regardless of the reason, the guide below is a recipe for enthralling freezing
we use the same baking
method and ingredients most people use at home to roast our pies. Therefore,
the steps below can apply for all our pies, and those baked similarly.
Make and bake your pie
in using disposal/recyclable pies pans.
After baking the until
the pie is completely done, remove the pie from the oven and cool on a rack. Please
ensure that the pie cools completely before proceeding.
Using an airtight
freezer bag or plastic wrap, wrap and seal the cooled pie.
Place the wrapped pie in
a freezer. To freeze thoroughly may take 24 hours or a little longer to freeze
the pie fully.
Pies take approximately
8 hours to cool fully. Checking on cool time guidelines is essential for the
When it comes to the
storage half-life, you will get different estimates on how long the frozen pies
can last. However, from our vast experience, we recommend the following time
limits. Note that we have estimated the shortest period. Therefore, you can
leave it for quite a little longer without worrying about its safety for
Frozen fruit pies are
best served within six months.
Custard based pies
should be served within three months once frozen.
If you check various
sources, two main methods can be used to defrost and serve frozen homemade
pies. Both methods work exceptionally well, but we like one of the methods
since it is relatively convenient.
Pre-warm the oven to more
Remove the pie from the
freezer and unwrap the pie.
Remove any accumulated
frost common on the top side of the pie.
Place the frozen pie in
a baking sheet and place it in the preheated oven.
The baking times vary,
so verifying doneness is essential. An easy way to check whether or not a pie
is ready is to insert a knife to the center, remove and feel the temperature of
the knife tip using your finger. If the knife is warm, your pie is ready for
consumption. That said, the various baking times include;
5” pie takes between 15
to 30 minutes
7” pie takes between 30
to 50 minutes
10” pie takes between 40
to 70 minutes.
Let the pie cool then
This method takes much
more time compared to the first method.
As usual, take out the
frozen pie from the freezer and leave it for at least 5 to 6 hours
Unlike the first method,
don’t remove the plastic wraps or airtight freezer bag. Defrost the pie with
the wraps on it for approximately 4 to 5 hours or to room temperature. Doing
this allows condensation to occur outside the plastic wrap instead of forming
on the pie’s crust.
Once condensed, unwrap
the pie and put it on a baking sheet.
Place the pie to heat in
the oven for 30 minutes at 300. Note that the timing applies to all pies
regardless of the size.
Remove the pie from the
oven, place on a rack, and let the pie cool and serve.
Freezing Do’s and Don’ts
Freezing pies can be as
simple as the guide outlines above. However, there are some things to note when
freezing your pie. Below are common dos and don’ts when freezing a pie.
Do label the pies with
descriptions and dates of placing them in the freezer.
Do store the pies
together and with other similar foods in the freezer.
Do freeze pies in
individual portions, which makes it easy to thaw only what you need and
shortens thawing time.
Do leave some air
between the wrapped pies, which allows air to circulate freely.
Don’t freeze the pies
while hot. Make sure that they cool before putting them in a freezer.
Don’t use extra-large
Do squeeze all the extra
air from freezer bags used to wrap the pie before sealing.
There you have it. We
hope this guide will help you achieve better-frozen homemade pies. Observe the
dos and don’ts for better results.
These are lovely little pies meat pies. This style of pie is thought to have originated in Scottland but can be found in one form or another throughout the united kingdom. In fact, I have been thinking about this style of pie since a visit to Montreal, Canada, last year where I saw them in local restaurants and bakery shops.
Scotch Pie For Two Ingredients
lb. mutton, minced 225
gr mutton, minced
tbsp gravy 60
tsp smoked paprika powder 1
tsp paprika powder
tsp nutmeg ½
of salt Pinch
of ground black pepper Pinch
of ground black pepper
1 ½ cups of plain flour 180 gr of plain flour
½ cup of lard 118 ml of lard
½ cup of water 118 ml of water
of salt Pinch
egg, beaten (for glaze)
Scotch Pie For Two Directions
2 pieces of 4’ ramekin dish. Grease with oil.
the oven to 400F
all the ingredients in a mixing bowl, stir until well-combined. Chill in the
Add flour and salt in a different medium mixing bowl, stir to combine, set aside. Heat water and lard in a medium saucepan until boiling, remove from heat then pour into the flour. Mix together with a wooden spoon, let it cool down a little. Once cool enough, put onto the floured surface and knead until smooth for about 5 minutes (like pizza dough)
Divide the dough into 4 equally sized balls. Roll out 2 balls of dough to a size that could cover bottom and sides of the ramekin. Put the dough in the ramekin, push gently with your finger to make sure all sides of ramekin are covered, making the ramekin as the mold for the pie. Do the same to the other ramekin.
Take the meat out of the fridge and divide by 2 equal sizes. Place 1 ball of meat to a ramekin, spread the meat evenly with a spoon, so it has a flat surface.
Roll out the remaining balls of dough to a size that could cover the top of the pie, making it like the lids on top of the filling. Press gently to make sure the edges are stick together. Make a little X or hole in the middle of the lid. Do the same with the other ramekin
Brush beaten egg to the top of the pies. Put both ramekins on a baking tray and bake for 35-40 minutes or until golden brown. Let it rest for 10 minutes. Gently remove the pies by scraping the sides with a small knife first, it should come out very easily. Serve while it’s warm.